Agricultural products

Corn, as cereal crops, belongs to the grass family (Poaceae, Graminae). In that big family, genus corn – Zea together with more seven geni make up the tribe Maydeae. The genus Zea has only one variety Zea mays L. and only as a culture form. There are no wild types of corn.

Corn stands out among all cereal crops with the greatest yield potential. Regarding the organic matter it can yield per hectare it is counted among the field plants with the greatest quantity of useful organic matter.

It originated in Middle and South America. It was brought to Europe most likely with the first expedition of Columbus (in 1492), but definitely with the second one (in 1494). At first corn was a curious plant and as such it was cultivated in gardens. In 1525 corn was already being cultivated in Spain on larger areas and was then spread to France, Italy, South-East Europe, Africa. It arrived to the Balkans in the 17th century. It is cultivated in moderate and warm parts of the world in a great number of sub-species, varieties and sorts.

It is used for human and domestic animals diet and for industrial production. Almost all parts of the corn plant may be used for industrial processing, which is exactly what gives the corn its special economic significance. Today more than 500 different industrial corn processed products are produced. Upon processing of the corn grain in separate basic ingredients almost nothing is lost so in terms of weight equal amount of the product is obtained. It is used in food and pharmaceutical industries, production of cosmetics, for production of various beverages, and in textile and chemical industries.

Importance of corn in cattle breeding must be especially emphasized, starting from the silage of the whole plant to the use of certain parts of the plant, cob and grain for special purposes in production of meat, milk, eggs and other products with certain categories of cattle.

Chemical content of the corn grain depends on the same factors as in other cereal crops: sort, agrotechnology and area. The content of raw proteins is about 10%, with fairly weak amino acid content. Oil content ranges on average from 5 to 6%. Corn may be interesting as a source of production of high quality oil. Corn germ in proportion to the remaining part of the grain is 10-14%, and the oil content may be up to 40%. The base of the endosperm is starch. In the corn grain 80% of proteins are in the endosperm, and 20% in the germ. Apart from starch there are sugars (especially with the sub-species sweet corn). Sugars are present in the form of amylodextrin, glucose and sucrose.

Corn is cultivated at agricultural land of DTD Ribarstvo in the area of 1.492 ha where excellent yields are achieved.

Wheat belongs to the order Poales, family Poaceae (Gramineae – grass), sub-family Pooideae – ear grass, genus Triticum.

Wheat is the most important kind of cereal crop, according to its presence, production, consumption, nutritional value and also according to its significance in international trade. It is on the second place of the total production of cereal crops yield right after corn, while rice is in the third place.

It originated in South-East Asia and is one of the oldest cultured plants. In the new world (America and Australia) it was not known prior to its discovery. It is considered that wheat has been cultivated for more than ten thousand years.

Wheat grains are the main food product used to obtain flour for bread, cakes, pasta, etc. for fermentation in production of beer, alcohol, vodka and bio fuels. However, above all, it is used as a bread plant. Wheat bread is today used to feed approximately 70% of the world population. It has a high content of proteins (16-17%), carbohydrates (77-78%), fat (1,2-1,5%) and good digestibility.

The most important indicator of the wheat quality are the quantity and quality of the grain proteins. Content of proteins in the grain is taken as an international standard of wheat – 13,5%. However, content of proteins is significantly changed depending on the region of farming and fertilisation. Wheat cultivated in East and South has a higher content of proteins than the one from Western and Northern regions.

On average, wheat grain contains some 70% of carbohydrates, 11% of raw proteins, 3% of cellulose, 1,75% of fat and approximately 1,7% of mineral matters. Wheat contains very important ingredients such as group B, A and PP vitamins as well as minerals – iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese and selenium.

Wheat is cultivated at agricultural land of DTD Ribarstvo in the area of 1.279 ha where excellent yields are achieved.

Soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a plant species belonging to the family Fabacea – grain legumes (according to previous classification Leguminosae).

The centre where soy originated is China. The first historical written statements on the soy date to the year 3000 B.C. At the beginning of a new era, soy was spread to South China, Korea and Japan territories, which are considered its secondary centres of origin. Upon development of the maritime transport in the 18th century soy had gradually become known to other civilisations and it started to appear in botanical gardens of Europe and America. It is considered that soy was brought to America by Benjamin Franklin. The more recent history of soy began in the 19th century in America from where it started to spread worldwide. Afterwards soy assumed a significant place in modern agriculture.

Soy owes much of its remarkably great commercial importance to the chemical content of its seed. It has a high content of proteins – 24-55%, while the content of oil is 17-24%. Apart from this, it contains some 20% of nitrogen-free extractive matters. According to its amino acid content and digestibility its proteins are very close to animal origin proteins. Out of the total quantity of proteins 70-90% of them are soluble in water. Soy oil does not belong to the group of high quality oils (such as olive and sunflower oils), so it is used as raw material for further processing. Soy seed is rich in vitamins. It has a very high content of provitamin A, vitamins B1, B2 and also vitamins C, D, E and K. Soy seed is a high quality food for humans. Apart from direct use in nourishment, soy is also used as a very important raw material in food industry. Soy proteins and oil have wide application in other branches of industry: rubber industry, paints, lacquers, glues, pharmaceutical industry, etc. It is becoming an increasingly popular raw material for biodiesel. It also has extremely high significance in diet of domestic animals. Its importance in cattle feeding grows progressively with the increase of shortcomings in animal proteins in cattle diet and especially in industrial production of concentrated cattle feed.

Soy proteins make up about 2/3 of global production of vegetable proteins while 1/3 of the vegetable oils originates from soy.

Soy is cultivated at agricultural land of DTD Ribarstvo in the area of 105 ha where excellent yields are achieved.

Beet has, as a production plant species, formed from wild species Beta perennis Hal. and Beta maritima L. in the areas of Southern and Middle Asia, Mediterranean and West-European regions. Spontaneous hybridisation and creation of the original beet was caused by parallel cultivation of these two types.

Beet root was the most frequent food of the Egyptians at the time of construction of the pyramids. Much later it was used as cattle feed however the beet as the source of sugar was not used until the mid 18th century and is a relatively young agricultural species. First factory for production of sugar from beet was built in 1798 in Silesia. However, degree of utilisation of sugar was minor, only 1%. Until 1856 the only selection method was mass selection. French explorer Vilmorin began with individual selection and introduced polarimeter for determination of sugar. At the start of the 20th century selection based on juice purity was introduced and content of sugar was at about 17%.

Chemical content of beet depends on cultivated sorts and hybrids, applied agrotechnology, soil and climate conditions, etc. It is believed that beet root usually contains around 25% of dry matter and around 75% of water.

The greatest part of dry matter is made up of sucrose – 17,5% and the remaining part (7,5%) is non-sugar matter. Part of the non-sugar matter (approx. 2,5%) is soluble in water and together with sucrose goes into the content of the raw beet juice. Degree of utilisation of sugar is decreased in the process of beet processing if the share of mineral matter increases.

Apart from the main product, sugar, by-products have great importance in the production of beet, such as leaves with heads, beet noodles, molasses and saturation sludge. Dry beet noodles present concentrated cattle feed and may be easily transported and stored for a long time. Molasses contains approximately 50% of sugar, 20% of organic non-sugar matter, 10% of mineral matter and the remaining quantity of water. Molasses were previously used more for cattle feeding and today they are used as the main raw material in production of baking and cattle yeast, and spirit. Lately it has been used for production of glutamine and other products in pharmaceutical and food industries.

Beet is cultivated at agricultural land of DTD Ribarstvo in the area of 207 ha where excellent yields are achieved.